. Tibbot-na-Long submitted. Holy war in Munster. An Irish tongue. Gráinne’s activities during her marriage to Dónal-an-Chogaidh may indicate that among her personal property were both galleys and men, a theory upheld by her possession of at least three galleys following his death. Grace O'Malley A Brief History of Grace O'Malley. (National Portrait Gallery, London), We can only speculate as to Gráinne’s early years; little is known about the education of the Gaelic élite, male or female. Gráinne and Richard-na-Iarainn continued to present themselves as man and wife until his death. Show starts 8:00pm. Once again, Gráinne set about rebuilding in the only way she knew. . ‘The Legend of Gráinne Mhaol’ returns to Hotel Westport for fourth season . Responded Sep 7, 2016. www.grainnemhaol.com Gráinne again faced Bingham’s vengeance; he plundered her territory, impounded her fleet and stationed ships in Clew Bay, leaving her propertyless with no means of rebuilding. While she was at sea he devastated her lands at Carraigahowley. Shane MacOliverus Bourke was elected the MacWilliam, with Richard-na-Iarainn as his tánaiste. See more ideas about Grace o'malley, Pirate queen, Grace. (From Antiquities of west Mayo by Chris Corlett, Wordwell 2001), On her marriage to Richard-na-Iarainn Bourke of Burrishoole and Carra in 1567, Gráinne retained possession of her fleet and continued to ply her trade. In her petition to Elizabeth in 1593, Gráinne justified her activities of this time by explaining that. Gráinne Ní Mháille was born in Ireland around 1530, when Henry VIII was on the throne of England. Grace continued to live there after his death, of natural causes, in April 1583. It’s a nice story, though there is no evidence for it. As the legend goes, Gráinne wanted to go on a trading voyage with her father to Spain. Gráinne appears to have decided to have the best of both legal codes: she had possession of both MacWilliam property and her own. took arms by strong hand to make head against his neighbours which in like manner constrained your highness fond subject to take arms and by force to maintain herself and her people’. . He specifically sent O’Doherty to attack Gráinne. we really appreciate. S.G. Ellis, Ireland in the age of the Tudors 1447–1603 (Longman, London, 1998). Grace O’Malley, also known as Gráinne Mhaol and The Sea Queen of Connacht, is a legendary figure in Irish folklore and one of the most renowned female pirates to have made her mark on history. She was born around 1530, during which time Henry VIII ruled England and was proclaimed to be the Lord of Ireland even though the various clans of Ireland were more or less left to their own devices. In contrast, under English common law any property belonging to a woman automatically became the property of her husband on marriage, and the wife was granted a life interest in a percentage, usually a third, of all property following his death. 1.3K likes. However, records at Howth Castle state that the arrangement was made with Gráinne. In 1585 Perrot introduced another composition, re-offered Surrender and Regrant, and worked to abolish the clientship tributes. Gráinne fled to Ulster, whether to seek aid or because ‘fear compelled her to fly by sea’ is open to speculation. To renew a subscription please login first, Grace O’Malley (left) is presented at court to Queen Elizabeth I (right) in 1593. Behind the myths of Grace O’Malley, pirate queen, and Gráinne Mhaol, icon of Ireland, stands Gráinne Ní Máille, a proud and courageous woman, determined to ensure that she and her family received their rights. She became very angry, and kidnapped one of the lord’s sons. Once, when she was on a trip to Dublin, she wanted to rest at Howth Castle. On his return to Connacht, Gráinne bore the brunt of Bingham’s rage. Bingham’s successor, Sir Conyers Clifford, recorded a payment of £200 to Tibbot ,‘his mother and [half] brother’ for their services. The last official record of Gráinne dates to 1601, when the captain of an English warship reported a brief engagement with ‘a galley I met . Gráinne ‘byrned and spoyled the isles of Aran’. This ‘demonstration of his loyalty . She insisted that since Perrot’s pardon she had lived a farmer’s life and ‘utterly did she give over her former trade’. Nationalists later lionised her as Gráinne Mhaol, a warrior who would come over the sea with Irish soldiers to rout the English. She exploited the ignorance of English officials, and took what she could, when she could. Settlement and plantation by English-born adventurers, many of whom acted as Crown officials, was encouraged and English writ began to penetrate to the farthest reaches of the island. Gráinne, having lost everything, appealed directly to Elizabeth. (Anthologia Hibernica, vol. The only charge actually laid against her was her chastisement of Murrough-na-Moar; the rest of her activities were dismissed as she ‘hath at times lived out of order’. giving them a chance to be heard, remembered and to Bingham proved reluctant to comply with his monarch’s wishes. She was a strong, brave woman but she was eventually arrested by the English in 1584 and Connacht was brought under English. They existed as an independent clan, paying and receiving tribute. She explained how circumstances compelled her to seek a living from the sea, and how, following Owen’s murder, Richard Bingham had ‘wiled her to remove from her late dwelling in Borisowle and to come and dwell under him’. In 1578 Desmond handed Gráinne over to Lord Justice Drury. Bingham ordered his brother John to seize the lands of Gráinne’s son Owen. Political and social background, Any attempt to glimpse the woman behind the legend must consider the period in which she lived, the forces arraigned against her, and the society which gave rise to her. In April 1583 Richard-na-Iarainn died of natural causes. Policies such as ‘Surrender and Regrant’ proved attractive to many of Ireland’s ruling élite. This was a situation that the Crown authorities could not ignore, and one which, using the tactic of ‘divide and conquer’, they fully exploited. A deal was brokered with Murrough-an-dTuadh: in return for his submission he was granted overlordship of Iar Chonnacht, ousting not only the existing chieftain but putting Dónal-na-Chogaidh’s position as tánaiste in jeopardy. . Granuaile, also known as Grace O’Malley, The Pirate Queen and head of the O’Malley Clan. This is often portrayed as her being forced out, despite her leadership abilities, owing to misogynistic laws. In 1588 Spain launched its Armada against England. (National Portrait Gallery, London). On learning that her son, Murrough-na-Moar, had sided with Bingham, she ‘burned his towen and spoiled his people of their cattayle and goods’. Ireland in the early decades of the sixteenth century consisted of two distinct cultures. Most would have been small, fast, manoeuvrable, oar- and sail-driven craft, perfect for hugging the coast but unsuitable for the open sea. It was during Elizabeth’s reign that real inroads were made into Gaelic Ireland. Elizabeth remained confident that Gráinne ‘as long as she lives, [will] continue a dutiful subject’. Although he didn’t avail of her ‘three galleys and two hundred fighting men’, he did sail with her to inspect the seaward defences of Galway, a service for which she successfully billed him. The Story of Grace O’Malley Pirate Queen Returns Gráinne Mhaol is a legendary Irish pirate that lived in Ireland in the 16th century. . The story of Clontarf, from battleground to garden suburb, Darkest Dublin: The story of the Church Street disaster and a pictorial account of the slums of Dublin in 1913. He was, for example, engaged in constant feuding with the Joyces. She is said to have led—or, according to some sources, repelled—a raid on the disputed Cock’s Castle in Lough Corrib, which, owing to her courage, was henceforth known as Hen’s Castle. At the age of 53, Gráinne Ní Máille was a wealthy and independent woman. The Uí Máilles were clients of MacWilliam Iachtarach, or the Mayo Bourkes, and in turn had clients of their own. 1.3K likes. Fearing that the Spanish would land in Ireland and unite with rebellious chieftains, the Crown recalled Bingham and replaced Perrot with Sir William Fitzwilliam. met me and his wife Grany My Mayle with all their force, and did swer they wolde hav my lyfe for comying soo furr into ther country and specialie his wife wold fight with me’. The birth of the couple’s only child, Tibbot-na-Long, is also the stuff of legend. In 1584 Sir John Perrot was appointed lord deputy, and Sir Richard Bingham was made provincial president of Connacht. Show starts 8:00pm. . Strict laws governed all formal aspects of these relationships; a complex interdependency bound the families together in a hierarchical society in which status and pride were of paramount importance. . Gráinne was born into the Ó Máille family (O’Malley) in 1530. He wrote to the court, stating that he had enough evidence, since her pardon, to justly hang her. However, the lord would not open the gates to her. to build an extensive database reflecting Irish lives, They were a noble, seafaring family that lived in Co. Mayo and her father was chieftain of his clan. BOOKS.IE is an Irish based online bookstore offering a wide diverse range of books, new releases, bestsellers, bargains and rare books, with worldwide delivery. Gráinne was born into the Ó Máille family (O’Malley) in 1530. He appealed to the MacWilliam for aid and was refused. Click Here to go to the Personal Histories page. ‘discord . This is how she got her nickname ‘Gráinne Mhaol’; in Irish, maol means ‘bald’! A series of measures were introduced to establish a centralised system of government and to Anglicise the entire population. In 1585 he held the first session in Mayo. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. They were a noble, seafaring family that lived in Co. Mayo and her father was chieftain of his clan. M. MacCurtain and M. O’Dowd (eds), Women in early modern Ireland (Dublin, 1991). During her journey she was seized and bound by John Bingham, and all her property confiscated. Popular tradition relates that, owing to Dónal-an-Chogaidh’s ineptness, Gráinne assumed the mantle of chieftainship of the O’Flahertys. The Bourkes concluded that they had only two choices, to support Elizabeth or O’Donnell. Women retained control of any personal property they brought to the marriage and were entitled to acquire additional property independently of their husbands. Advertisement. Martin was lucky to evade capture himself, ‘so spirited was the defence made by the extraordinary woman’. . II), Vilified by her English adversaries as ‘a woman who hath imprudently passed the part of womanhood’, Grace O’Malley was ignored by contemporary chroniclers in Ireland, yet her memory survived in native folklore. Her real name is Gráinne Ní Mháille but she is better known by her nickname, Gráinne Mhaol. Bingham was ordered to ‘protect them to live in peace and enjoy their livelihoods’. Her real name is Gráinne Ní Mháille but she is better known by her nickname, Gráinne Mhaol. She is traditionally credited with attacks from Donegal to Waterford. The clashes with English got worse after her second husband, Richard, died. Bingham was outraged. The following day the ship was attacked by Algerian corsairs: Gráinne is said to have arisen from her bed and turned the tide of battle. "Ireland's Pirate Queen Grainne Mhaol" returns to Westport Town Hall June 15th for a spectacular Show. She was also one of the last Irish leaders to defend against English rule in Ireland. The Legend of Gráinne Mhaol. Her new husband’s territory comprised the north shore of Clew Bay, his main residence being at Carraigahowley. During her captivity Lord Grey de Wilton succeeded Sidney. Grace O’Malley was a powerful leader in Ireland in the 1500s. Little is known about the size or composition of the fleet that she used to ‘maintain’ herself. www.grainnemhaol.com Grace OMalley, also known as Gráinne Mhaol and The Sea Queen of Connacht, is a legendary figure in Irish folklore and one of the most renowned female pirates to have made her mark on history. She was also known as Gráinne Ní Mháille or Granuaile. Richard-na-Iarainn and Gráinne combined forces and took to the field with a force of nearly 2000 men. . In return for his son, Gráinne made the lord promise to leave his gate open to visitors and to set an extra place for every meal. She earned and lost fortunes, each time rebuilding ‘by land and sea’. She requested ‘some reasonable maintenance’ and the return of seized property in exchange for total allegiance. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Bingham issued orders to seek out and kill any survivors, playing close attention to the Devil’s Hook’s territory. (Suzanne Mischyshyn/ CC BY SA 2.0 ) Grace O’Malley’s name also lives on as a company has adopted it for a brand of Irish whiskey, gin, and rum. Gráinne now began in earnest, with three galleys and a number of smaller boats, to earn her ‘maintenance by land and sea’. Explore the life of this Irish Pirate Queen and learn more about her! As the daughter of a chieftain, Gráinne would have brought a substantial dowry, or spréidh, to the marriage. Once, when she was on a trip to Dublin, she wanted to rest at Howth Castle. As part of the deal he agreed to rule by English law, to pay rent to the Crown, and to lodge and feed 200 soldiers for 42 days per annum. In 1546 Gráinne married Dónal-an-Chogaidh O’Flaherty, tánaiste, or heir presumptive, to the O’Flaherty. Some of the Bourkes refused to attend and barricaded themselves in Hag’s Castle at Lough Mask, which Bingham promptly attacked and demolished. Elizabeth recommended the release of Tibbot-na-Long and that monies be diverted from taxes on her sons’ estates to provide a pension for Gráinne. www.grainnemhaol.com Realising that his adversary had been granted leave to return to sea without having to provide sureties or hostages for good behaviour, he ordered troops to accompany her and stationed a detachment on her lands, obliging her to feed them. Stringent sureties were required to ensure that this occurred, though wives were sometimes forced to seek legal redress. . She was released in 1579, and by March was ensconced in Carraigahowley, where she was besieged by a Captain Martin, sent with orders to capture her for attacks on Galway shipping. Henry VIII was the first English monarch to proclaim himself ‘king of Ireland’, thus signalling a profound change in official Crown policy. We bring that same spirit to the heart of Downtown Jersey City. which aims to capture the individual histories of Irish In February 1580 Malby, returning briefly to Connacht, acted swiftly against Richard-na-Iarainn by garrisoning Burrishoole. In 1582 Lord and Lady Bourke moved to Lough Mask Castle. . Gráinne Ní Mháill was most likely born on Clare Island, Co. Mayo in … In 1589 the final Bourke rebellion ignited when Bingham ordered troops ‘to prosecute and followe all and every of the said traytors . . . The rest of the country was composed of the Gaelicised Old English and the native Irish. Richard-na-Iarainn, however, used the conflict as an excuse to plunder the territories of O’Kelly and Lord Athenry. Visit us at ThePirateGrace.com In November the earl of Desmond was declared a traitor. . This tradition continues to this day! Having met with little success, he returned in 1576 and summoned the lords to a meeting, during which he met ‘a most feminine sea captain called Granny Imallye and offered her services onto me’. Within weeks of her offer to Sidney, Gráinne set off to plunder Desmond; she was captured and held in Limerick Gaol to be used as a bargaining chip. Bingham, fearing new charges which had been laid against him, fled to England and was imprisoned. In return for his son, Gráinne made the lord promise to leave his gate open to visitors and to set an extra place for every meal. Bingham, preferring confrontational methods, appears to have focused on Gráinne as a source of trouble. . Fearing that Tibbot would be ‘executed before . A system of clientship existed; weaker families aligned themselves to powerful ones, and bonds were cemented by means of tribute, military aid, marriage and fosterage. Connacht was in turmoil. . A Changing Libraries Initiative - This site and all content is made available under respective copyrights. In 1592 Tibbot-na-Long initiated a rising and attacked Bingham. Released on the Devil’s Hook’s pledge, ‘fear compelled her to fly’ when he rebelled. The Legend of Gráinne Mhaol. Gráinne was released on the pledge of the Devil’s Hook, who immediately openly joined the rebellion. The actual scale of her activities is difficult to assess. According to legend Grannie, as a young girl, wanted to join her father on the sea and travel with him to Spain. Her father had no more excuses, so he had to let her on board. This galley comes out of Connacht and belongs to Grace O’Malley’. A Changing Libraries Initiative - This site and all content is made available under respective copyrights. to praie, burn and spolie’. Before Dónal had time to react, he was mortally wounded by the Joyces during a territorial skirmish. Her enemies were those who sought to impoverish her or her children. Grainne … Later that year, following the death of the MacWilliam, Bingham conferred the title and lands on MacOliverus’s eldest son, over the claim of tánaiste Edmund Bourke of Castlebar. In 1541 the MacWilliam Uachtarach—of the Galway Bourkes—became the earl of Clanricard. In 1575 Lord Deputy Sir Henry Sidney visited the province. Ultimately, Gráinne Ní Máille was a survivor who maintained the status of her family when the great earls had been forced into exile. Belfast 26 contributions 17 helpful votes. Born around 1530, she was the only child of Owen Dubhdara Uí Máille, the O’Malley of Umhall Uachtarach, and Margaret Ní Máille. and dissention . In his absence, Gráinne sailed for Dublin and appealed to Sir John Perrot, who granted her, and her children, full pardon for past offences. Nonetheless, sources do exist that demonstrate that sixteenth-century noblewomen in Ireland were relatively well educated. Bingham was charged with imposing the composition in Connacht. It is possible, given the fiery personalities of both partners, that Richard-na-Iarainn upset Gráinne, and found himself, temporarily, barred from the house. Sir Nicholas Malby, who had succeeded Fitton as provincial president of Connacht, was sent to quell the rebellion. She is known by different names e.g. During her lifetime, Gráinne was married twice. It is hoped While Perrot wished to follow a conciliatory route, Bingham stated that ‘The Irish were never tamed with words but with swords’. A commission was appointed to investigate her claims. . Map of Ireland’s north-west coast c. 1600. Thank you. The succession problem re-erupted when Shane MacOliverus died and his brother claimed both title and land. Elizabeth ordered Fitzwilliam to make peace with the Bourkes, and he, in turn, tried to rein Bingham in. The first marriage was to Dónal O’Flaherty and the second to Richard Burke. yt shall be lawful for you . However, Grace O’Malley was more than that. From this she gained the nickname “Gráinne Mhaol”, or “Bald Grainne”, usually Anglicized as “Granuaile”. She became a pirate queen and feminist hero in a time when women were treated as second-class citizens. However this was to change over the course of her life and the Tudor re-conquest of Irelandgathered pace. Queen Elizabeth I c. 1593—despite Bingham’s protests, she agreed to hear Gráinne’s petition and have her claim investigated. The legend of the ‘pirate queen’ of Connacht was born. Yet their later life raises another interpretation. Grace O’Malley, Granuaile. Composition of Connacht, The appointment of Sir Edward Fitton as provincial president in 1569 saw the Crown begin to make serious provision for the subjugation of Connacht. He founded a Gaelic kingdom on the western coast of Scotland and in the islands between Scotland and Ireland. This book tells the story of Somhairle Mór and of Scotland and Ireland in the times of the Vikings. At this time King Henry VIII of England was trying to increase his rule across Ireland, but Gráinne and her family refused allow the English into Galway Bay. It was a frontier society. The story of Gráinne Ni Mháille or Granuaile (Anglicized as Grace O'Malley, Grany Malley) reads like the most brazen and unlikely sort of adventure fiction, but there's history as well as myth in the legend of the Irish noblewoman who led a band of 200 sea-raiders from the coast of Galway in the sixteenth century. By late 1587 the Bourke rebellion had collapsed, and Bingham was sent to Flanders to aid the Dutch against Spain. She used every method at her disposal and had no compunction about bending the truth, as her enemies had none about bending the law. Settled on Clare Island, Under Gaelic law, Gráinne was unable to inherit O’Flaherty land, so she returned to Umhall and settled on Clare Island. 1.3K likes. Grace, or Gráinne Ní Mháille, was born around 1530 on Clare Island, County Mayo, into the Clan O’Malley, a grand seafaring family established in shipping and trading (and the odd bit of piracy). . Statue of Grainne Mhaol Ni Mhaille (Grace O'Malley, 1530-1603), the Irish Pirate, located at Westport House, Co. Mayo, Ireland. . This tradition continues to this day. (i.e., "Gráinne Ní Mháille, also known as Granuaile or Gráinne Mhaol … In your introduction you introduce her as "Grace O' Malley (Irish Gráinne Ní Mháille, also known as Granuaile or Gráinne Mhaol)" when it should be the other way around. Perrot had been ordered to undo the sense of alienation caused by the harsh methods employed by his predecessors. Traditionally this has been described as their divorce. The Bourkes, along with English officials, presented a list of charges against Bingham, who was tried and acquitted in 1590. The true historical story of Grace O’Malley is a powerful and exciting one. . Grainne, was the most beautiful woman in Ireland, she was also the daughter of Cormac MacAirt, the High King of Ireland. Grace O’Malley (Gráinne Mhaol) Labeled by the English as “the nurse to all rebellions” and “director of thieves and murderers at sea,” the Chieftan Grace O’Malley exhibited the true Spirit of Irish independence when she came face to face with Queen Elizabeth and introduced her to the language of the Gael. She was the only daughter of Eoghan Dubhdara (Black Oak) O’Malley and Margaret or Maeve Ní Mháille. [and] cruelly murdered having twelve deadly wounds’. . Under Gaelic law the dowry, although available for use by the husband, had to be returned intact to the wife on dissolution of the marriage. . Show starts 8:00pm. His descendents include many of the great Gaelic clans. Nevertheless, this subject of verse, music, romantic novels, documentaries and an interpretive centre remains shrouded in mystery. She was forced to remain in exile for three months as a result of storm damage to her fleet. 100 good shot . Rockfleet tower-house, Carraigahowley, Clew Bay, main residence of Grace’s second husband, Richard-na-Iarainn Bourke. people both in Ireland and around the world. Bingham claimed that Owen ‘being prisoner . Tibbot-na-Long was implicated, imprisoned and charged with treason. Such property could include troops, ships and a plethora of other goods. She was the daughter of Eoghan Dubhdara Ó Máille,[2] chieftain of the Ó Máille clan. With rebellion in Munster, Malby and de Wilton had no choice but to acquiesce to the couple’s demands, and on 16 April 1580 Richard-na-Iarainn was ennobled and given full title as the MacWilliam. On the brink of poverty, Gráinne again appealed to Elizabeth. According to legend, she is buried on her family’s land on Clare Island but this has never been proven. Gráinne was a member of the Gaelic aristocracy. Theresa D. Murray is a history undergraduate at University College Cork. Under the policies of the English government at the time, the semi-autonomous Irish princes and lords were left mostly to their own devices. Elizabeth’s commitment to the Reformation, coupled with the usurpation by newcomers of the privileges of the old ruling classes, inevitably led to violence and social upheaval. She controlled part of western Ireland for decades. Open conflict flared. Undoubtedly he was a hot-tempered and impetuous man, quick to take offence and to seek retribution. Westport Tourism; Westport Hotels; Westport Bed and Breakfast; Westport Vacation Rentals; Westport Vacation Packages; Flights to Westport; Westport Restaurants Incensed by the killing of her son, Gráinne became an active rebel against Bingham, who dispatched John to capture her and seize her property. A. She is commonly known by her Irish nickname Granuaile or Gráinne ni Mhaille, a name reputed to come from the Irish for bald (Mhaol). 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